Monday, June 10, 2024

Leveraging PHPUnit Data Providers with Eloquent Model Factories in Laravel Testing

In Laravel, there are several ways to work with model factories in feature testing. For instance, you can create models in the setUp() function if you intend to use them for multiple tests or directly create them in each test case.

However, what if you want to test cases with various data? This is where PHPUnit data providers with Eloquent models come into play.

Using a data provider in feature testing can be tricky because it runs before Laravel bootstraps through the TestCase class executed during setUp(). The data provider executes at the beginning of the PHPUnit process, resulting in the following error if you attempt to use it:
There was 1 PHPUnit error:

1) Tests\Feature\ExampleTest::test_non_admin_users_cannot_access_admin
The data provider specified for Tests\Feature\ExampleTest::test_non_admin_users_cannot_access_admin is invalid A facade root has not been set.
This occurs because when the data provider code is executed, the Laravel application has not yet been bootstrapped!

Solution Using Closure

If you are a Pest PHP user, the "Bound Datasets" example utilizes closure for data models:
it('can generate the full name of a user', function (User $user) {
    expect($user->full_name)->toBe("{$user->first_name} {$user->last_name}");
    fn() => User::factory()->create(['first_name' => 'Nuno', 'last_name' => 'Maduro']),
    fn() => User::factory()->create(['first_name' => 'Luke', 'last_name' => 'Downing']),
    fn() => User::factory()->create(['first_name' => 'Freek', 'last_name' => 'Van Der Herten']),
In PHPUnit, we can use a closure to pass code to the test via a data provider without directly trying to create the data:
namespace Tests\Feature;

use App\Models\User;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Testing\RefreshDatabase;
use PHPUnit\Framework\Attributes\DataProvider;
use Tests\TestCase;

class ExampleTest extends TestCase
    use RefreshDatabase;

    public function test_non_admin_users_cannot_access_admin($user): void
        $response = $this

    public static function nonAdminUsers(): array
        return [
            [fn(): User => User::factory()->player()->create()],
            [fn(): User => User::factory()->coach()->create()],
            [fn(): User => User::factory()->owner()->create()],
Notice the invocation of $user(), which we pass to actingAs(). If you need to use the model in various places, just assign it to a variable. Now, the factory data is created within the test, as desired!
Learn More To delve deeper into HTTP feature testing in Laravel, consult its official documentation.
This article elucidates how to overcome errors when using PHPUnit data providers with Eloquent model factories in Laravel feature testing. The suggested solution involves using closure to defer the creation of factory data into the test itself. This ensures that the application
is properly bootstrapped before the data provider is executed, allowing for seamless testing with various data scenarios. By implementing these techniques, you can streamline your testing process and ensure robust and reliable feature testing in Laravel applications.

How to Maximizing Your Experience with Facebook Marketplace Notifications

 Facebook Marketplace has become a go-to platform for buying and selling items online. Whether you're searching for rare items or looking for a bargain, the "Notifications" feature on Facebook Marketplace can be your secret weapon. This feature alerts you when sellers list items that match your criteria, saving you the hassle of constantly searching.

How to Enable Notifications on Facebook Marketplace

Follow these steps to set up notifications on Facebook Marketplace:

  1. Open Facebook: Use a web browser on your computer, such as Google Chrome, to access Facebook.
  2. Access Marketplace: Click on the "Marketplace" shortcut located in the left sidebar or at the top of the Facebook homepage.
  3. Search for Items: Enter the name of the item you're looking for in the search bar. The more specific your search, the more accurate your notifications will be.
  4. Enable Notifications: After entering your search terms, look at the bottom of the search column and click the "Notify Me" button.
  5. Customize Notification Criteria: A pop-up window will appear, allowing you to set criteria for your notifications:
    • Price: Set your minimum and maximum price range.
    • Search Radius: Adjust the location radius to limit your search to a specific area, such as your city.
  6. Save Settings: Click "Create Alert" to finalize your notification settings.

Modifying or Deleting Notifications

You can change or delete your existing notifications at any time:

  1. Repeat the Search: Search for the same item as before (step 3).
  2. Edit or Delete Notifications: After the search results appear, look at the bottom of the search column for the "Edit Alert" or "Delete Alert" options. Select the desired option.

Benefits of Using Notifications

Using the notification feature on Facebook Marketplace offers several advantages:

  • Efficiency: Save time by receiving alerts for new listings that match your criteria, eliminating the need to frequently check the Marketplace.
  • Increased Chances of Acquisition: Be among the first to know about new listings, increasing your chances of securing the item before others.
  • Time and Energy Savings: Use the time and effort you save for more productive activities.

Additional Tips

  • Use Precise Keywords: Ensure accurate search results by using specific keywords.
  • Utilize Search Filters: Narrow down your search results using available filters in the Marketplace.
  • Stay Vigilant Against Scams: Always be cautious when conducting online transactions. Verify the seller’s reputation and never transfer money before seeing the item in person.

By effectively utilizing the notification feature on Facebook Marketplace, you can become a savvy and efficient shopper. Enjoy the enhanced shopping experience!

How to Adding Creative Curved Text in Microsoft Word

 Microsoft Word is more than just a word processing tool. Beyond its text editing capabilities, Word offers a range of customization and formatting features, including the ability to create curved text. This feature can add a creative touch to your documents, such as brochures, logos, invitations, and presentations. Here’s how to use it effectively.

Uses for Curved Text in Microsoft Word

Curved text can make titles or headers more attention-grabbing, introduce unique design elements, and create a more engaging and visually appealing document.

Examples of Suitable Documents for Curved Text:

  • Party invitations
  • Recipe cards
  • Flyers
  • Advertisements
  • Logos
  • Presentations

How to Create Curved Text in Microsoft Word

There are two main methods to create curved text in Microsoft Word: using a text box and using WordArt.

Method 1: Using a Text Box

  1. Open your Word document.
  2. Click the Insert tab on the ribbon.
  3. Select Text Box.
  4. Click and drag to create a text box in your document.
  5. Type the text you want to curve inside the text box.
  6. Right-click on the text box border and select Format Shape.
  7. In the Format Shape panel, select No Fill and No Line to remove the background of the text box.
  8. Click the Text Effects tab (the "A" icon with blue paint).
  9. Hover over Transform and choose either Curve: Up or Curve: Down to curve the text upwards or downwards.
  10. Drag the yellow circle to adjust the curvature.

Method 2: Using WordArt

  1. Highlight the text you want to curve.
  2. Click the Insert tab on the ribbon.
  3. Select WordArt.
  4. Choose a WordArt style from the menu.
  5. Right-click on the WordArt and select Format Shape.
  6. Follow steps 7-10 from the text box method to curve the WordArt text.

Additional Tips:

  • Experiment with different curved lines to create unique effects.
  • Adjust the color and size of the curved text to make it stand out.
  • Combine curved text with images or other design elements for a more visually appealing document.


By following this guide, you can easily create eye-catching curved text in Microsoft Word. Use your creativity to add a unique touch to your documents, making them more engaging for your audience.

How to Hide Your Phone Number on Getcontact

Getcontact is a popular tool for identifying unknown phone numbers. It offers advanced features that help users track and identify unknown callers, providing additional convenience and security in daily life. However, did you know you can remain anonymous and hide your phone number on Getcontact? Here’s how to keep your privacy secure while using this app.

Why Getcontact is Popular

Getcontact stands out in the contact identification app market due to its unique features and lack of competition. It is widely downloaded from both Google Play Store and App Store. Its primary function is to help users track unknown numbers that contact them. With Getcontact, you can find tags and names assigned to the number by other users.

If the tracked number is suspicious, the app will notify you with a 'Spam' alert, helping you stay cautious.

Privacy on Getcontact

When using Getcontact, you allow the app to make your number trackable by other users. While useful, there may be times when you prefer to stay anonymous and hide your phone number from the app's database. Fortunately, Getcontact provides a feature to hide your number, keeping your identity safe.

Steps to Hide Your Phone Number on Getcontact

Follow these steps to hide your phone number on Getcontact and maintain your privacy:

  1. Ensure You Have a Getcontact Account

    • Download and register on Getcontact if you haven't already.
  2. Access Getcontact Settings

    • Open your browser and go to the Getcontact settings page through this link: Getcontact Manage.
  3. Open Your Profile Page

    • Log in and navigate to your profile page on the site.
  4. Navigate to 'Visibility Settings'

    • On your profile page, find and open the 'Visibility Settings' menu. This is where you can control who can see your number.
  5. Disable 'Search Visibility'

    • In 'Visibility Settings,' you’ll find the 'Search Visibility' option. Turn this off to hide your number from other users' searches.
  6. Confirm the Setting

    • After disabling 'Search Visibility,' confirm the change by selecting 'Yes.'
  7. Your Phone Number is Hidden

    • Once confirmed, your phone number will be automatically hidden from Getcontact's search database.

Benefits of Hiding Your Number on Getcontact

Hiding your number on Getcontact offers several advantages, especially if you are concerned about online privacy and security:

  • Avoid Spam and Fraud: By hiding your number, you reduce the risk of receiving spam calls or messages.
  • Enhanced Privacy: Keep your identity and personal information safe from unwanted contacts.
  • Greater Control: You have full control over who can view and contact your number.

Additional Privacy Tips

Beyond hiding your number on Getcontact, consider these additional steps to enhance your overall privacy and security:

  • Use an Alias: When creating profiles on any app, use an alias if possible.
  • Check Privacy Settings: Regularly review and adjust privacy settings on all your apps.
  • Avoid Sharing Your Number: Do not share your phone number on untrusted websites or apps.

How to Verify the Authenticity of Your Samsung Phone Purchased Online

 Buying a new Samsung phone online is convenient and enticing. However, many unscrupulous sellers offer counterfeit Samsung phones. Don't let yourself be deceived and regret it later!

Here are some simple ways to check the authenticity of your Samsung phone bought online:

Check Physical Details

Camera Lens Placement:

  • Ensure the camera lens is properly aligned. Genuine Samsung phones have precisely placed lenses. If the lens appears crooked, misaligned, or protruding too much, it is likely a fake.

Brand Name and Logo:

  • Verify that the Samsung brand name and logo are printed clearly and neatly. Pay attention to the font, size, and color. An authentic Samsung logo is typically black with bold lettering.

Device Buttons:

  • Inspect the buttons, such as volume, power, and home buttons. Genuine Samsung buttons are made from quality materials and feel sturdy when pressed. If the buttons are loose, made from cheap materials, or malfunctioning, be cautious!

Utilize Hidden Codes and Features

Check IMEI:

  • The IMEI is a unique identifier for each phone. Dial *#06# to view your phone's IMEI. Compare this number with the one on the phone's box. If they do not match, the phone is likely counterfeit.

Access Diagnostic Tools:

  • Samsung phones have built-in diagnostic tools. Open the phone app, dial #0#, and press OK. If the diagnostic tool works correctly and displays comprehensive information, the phone is likely genuine.

Register the Product:

  • Try registering your Samsung phone on your Samsung account. Open the Samsung Members app, select Support, click Register, and follow the instructions. If the registration is successful, the phone is likely authentic.

Compare Specifications:

  • Check your phone's specifications against the official Samsung website or the manual. Ensure all specifications match, including software version, battery capacity, and processor type.

Run Maintenance Mode:

  • Maintenance Mode helps secure personal data during repairs. Go to Settings, select Device Care, scroll down and tap Maintenance Mode, choose Turn On, and press Restart. If the phone enters Maintenance Mode successfully, it is likely genuine.

Additional Tips

Buy from Trusted Sellers:

  • Purchase your Samsung phone from reputable online stores with good reviews. Read customer feedback before making a purchase.

Be Wary of Low Prices:

  • If the offered price is significantly lower than the market rate, be cautious! The phone is likely a counterfeit.

Check Accessories:

  • Ensure your Samsung phone comes with all official accessories, such as the charger, data cable, and earphones.


Buying a Samsung phone online carries risks, but by following these tips, you can minimize the risk of purchasing a counterfeit device.

Always stay vigilant and conduct thorough research before buying. Remember, prevention is better than cure!

The Best Websites for Downloading Subtitles: A Guide for Film Enthusiasts

 Have you ever been frustrated by the lack of subtitles for your favorite film? You're not alone! This is a common issue for movie lovers who enjoy films from various countries.

Fortunately, in this digital era, finding subtitles manually is a thing of the past. There are now numerous websites offering easy and free subtitle downloads.

Even better, these sites don't just provide subtitles for movies but also for your favorite TV shows. This means you can enjoy entertainment from around the world without language barriers.

Here are five of the best websites for downloading subtitles that you must try:

1. Addic7ed: A Haven for Movie and TV Show Subtitles

Despite its simple interface, Addic7ed is a reliable site for finding subtitles for movies and TV shows. On the homepage, you'll find the latest and most popular options. There’s also a quick search menu to help you find the subtitles you need.

The main advantage of Addic7ed is the availability of subtitles in various languages for most movie and TV show titles. You can also filter content by release date to easily find the latest episodes.

If you can't find the subtitles you need, don't worry! Addic7ed has a community forum where you can request subtitles. You might find other users willing to help.

2. Downsub: Download Subtitles Directly from Your Favorite Videos

Downsub offers a unique way to obtain subtitles by downloading them directly from videos. This site supports various video platforms such as YouTube, Vlive, Viki, Hotstar, and more.

Simply paste the video URL into the provided box and click "Download." Downsub will automatically process your request and provide the subtitles in no time.

This feature is especially useful for watching videos from platforms that do not officially provide subtitles. Downsub is a practical solution to enjoy your favorite content without language barriers.

3. English Subtitles: Learn English While Watching Movies

For those looking to improve their English while watching movies, English Subtitles is the perfect site. It offers a comprehensive collection of subtitles for thousands of movies from various countries and eras.

In addition to movies, you can also find subtitles for many popular TV shows. English Subtitles is easy to use and navigate.

Importantly, the site uses HTTPS protocol to ensure the security of user data. You can learn English with peace of mind, knowing your privacy is protected.

4. Podnapisi: Comprehensive Subtitles with a Rating System

Podnapisi is one of the most popular subtitle download sites among movie and TV show enthusiasts. It is regularly updated with the latest subtitles for new movies.

Uniquely, Podnapisi features a rating system that allows users to rate the quality of subtitles. This helps you choose the best and most suitable subtitles for your needs.

Additionally, Podnapisi offers an advanced search menu that allows you to find subtitles by keyword, year, genre, season, and episode.

With this sophisticated search system, you can easily find the subtitles you’re looking for, even for older movies and TV shows.

5. OpenSubtitles: The Largest Subtitle Repository on the Internet

OpenSubtitles is a favorite among users for its vast database of subtitles. The site is available in multiple languages, including Indonesian.

OpenSubtitles offers a powerful search tool to help you find the subtitles you need. You can filter your search by year, country, genre, season, episode, and even subtitle file format.

Interestingly, OpenSubtitles has an AI tool that can help translate subtitles automatically. This feature is paid but can be a practical solution for watching movies or TV shows with subtitles in another language.


These five sites are just a few of the many subtitle download websites available on the internet. Each site has its own strengths and weaknesses.

You can choose the one that best fits your needs and preferences.

Enjoy watching your favorite movies and TV shows with comprehensive and easily understandable subtitles!

Unveiling Omakub: The Ultimate Tool for Customizing Your Linux Desktop

 The dream of a perfectly customized Linux desktop is a common goal among its users. With Linux, you have the freedom to tailor the interface, install applications, and add GNOME Shell extensions to suit your personal preferences.

For many users, customizing their desktop is straightforward: adding applications, setting a beautiful wallpaper, and installing a few extensions. But for those who desire a more personalized setup, the options can be overwhelming, and the process can be time-consuming and complex.

Imagine the convenience of running a single command to achieve a personalized setup!

Introducing Omakub

Omakub is a new bash script designed to transform a fresh Ubuntu 24.04 LTS installation into an optimized web development environment with just one command.

"Omakub was created by me, David Heinemeier Hansson, to simplify my own Linux setup and to help our technical staff at 37signals transition to Linux. It’s designed for a specific context where Ruby on Rails, web development tools, and commercial services are interconnected," Hansson explains.

"No more writing custom configurations for every essential tool just to get started or using all the latest command-line tools," the Omakub website adds.

Omakub provides a quick way to achieve a solid initial setup on a vanilla Ubuntu installation, serving as a convenient starting point.

Why Ubuntu?

David Heinemeier Hansson explains, "Omakub uses vanilla Ubuntu because it’s one of the most widely adopted Linux distributions, and even a pre-installed choice from many computer vendors."

"Although Ubuntu has a great package manager in apt, many desired developer tools aren’t packaged, require newer versions than those in LTS, or need post-installation actions for optimal operation," he continues.

While dedicated users of nixOS or Arch might not need such a script, those transitioning to Linux from Windows might find Omakub invaluable.

A Pragmatic Approach

Omakub utilizes the Alacritty terminal and focuses on practicality rather than idealism. It includes a range of GUI and CLI tools to create a comfortable and efficient coding environment:

  • Google Chrome
  • VScode
  • Zoom
  • 1Password
  • Pinta
  • Ulauncher
  • Xournal++
  • Flameshot
  • VLC
  • Spotify

Additionally, Omakub configures Docker with MySQL and Redis, installs Lazydocker for easy Docker control, NeoVim, the gh CLI for GitHub, rbenv for Ruby management, and nodenv for Node.js management.

GNOME Shell remains the default desktop but is enhanced with add-ons for a keyboard-driven and window-tiling workflow.

Trying Omakub

To explore Omakub, you can review the bash script on GitHub and visit the official website for a detailed video demonstration.

Omakub must be run on a new Ubuntu 24.04 LTS installation or one that hasn’t been significantly altered. Running the script on an existing setup is possible but carries the risk of configuration conflicts.

The command will download and run the script, automating the process except for approving four GNOME Extensions. Once the script completes, logging out and rebooting is recommended to apply the new settings.

Running scripts from the internet is generally discouraged in the Linux community. If you decide to use Omakub, review the script on GitHub to understand its actions. Reverting the changes made by Omakub will require more than a single command.

Omakub is a remarkable tool that offers substantial value with minimal effort. Its software choices and aesthetic changes may not suit everyone, but it provides a time-saving solution for those new to Linux.


Omakub is an excellent tool for web developers new to Linux, offering a ready-to-use setup for web development. This script is easy to use and can save considerable time by simplifying the configuration process.

While it may not be suitable for all users, especially those who prefer to configure their systems themselves, Omakub is a valuable resource for developers starting with Linux. It provides an efficient, user-friendly setup for web development, making the transition to Linux smoother and more enjoyable.

How to Fix DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN Error: Comprehensive Guide

For many internet users, encountering the "DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN" error message can be a frustrating experience. This error code, displayed by web browsers when attempting to access websites, can leave users bewildered and disconnected. However, this guide aims to demystify the error, explore its root causes, and provide effective solutions for restoring internet connectivity.

Understanding DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN: Unveiling the Cause

DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN, an error encountered within web browsers, signifies a malfunction in the Domain Name System (DNS) resolution process. DNS, akin to the internet's phonebook, plays a critical role in translating user-friendly website names (e.g., into their corresponding IP addresses, enabling seamless access to web pages.

The appearance of the DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN error indicates that the DNS system has been unable to locate a matching IP address for the specified website name. This can arise from a multitude of factors, including:

  • Incorrect DNS Configuration: Improperly configured DNS settings can impede the DNS system's ability to locate the correct IP address.

  • Incomplete DNS Propagation: Following modifications to DNS records, a propagation period is necessary for the changes to disseminate across the entire DNS network. This can lead to temporary inaccessibility.

  • Firewall Interference: Overly restrictive firewall rules might obstruct DNS requests, hindering the DNS system's functionality.

  • Internet Connectivity Issues: Unreliable or disrupted internet connections can prevent the DNS system from effectively communicating with DNS servers.

Conquering DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN: A Step-by-Step Resolution Guide

While the DNS_PROBE_FINISHED_NXDOMAIN error can be disconcerting, there are several troubleshooting methods at your disposal to restore internet access. Follow these steps to vanquish this error:

  1. Domain Renewal (Website Owners):

For website owners encountering this error, verification of domain name expiration is essential. Expired domain names become inaccessible and require renewal for restoration of functionality.

  1. DNS Zone Inspection (DNS Control):

If you manage the website's DNS settings, a meticulous examination of the DNS zone records is necessary. Ensure the A record accurately points to the website's IP address.

  1. Temporary CDN Disabling:

If your website utilizes a Content Delivery Network (CDN), temporarily disable it to determine if it's the culprit. Occasional CDN glitches can hinder website accessibility.

  1. VPN Disabling:

Momentarily disable your Virtual Private Network (VPN) to assess if it's interfering with network settings and blocking website access. If the website becomes accessible, consider switching to a more compatible VPN service.

  1. Browser Cache Clearing:

Clear your web browser's cache, cookies, and history. Corrupted or outdated cached data can sometimes lead to DNS resolution issues. Be advised that clearing cookies will log you out of all active websites.

  1. Local Hosts File Inspection:

The local hosts file on your computer maps domain names to specific IP addresses. If it contains outdated entries pointing to old server IPs, it could be causing the error. Open the hosts file and remove any lines related to the problematic website.

  1. DNS Cache Flushing:

The DNS cache stores local translations of domain names to IP addresses. Over time, this cache can accumulate corrupted or outdated data. Flushing the DNS cache can help resolve the issue.

Instructions for Flushing the DNS Cache:

  • Windows: Open Command Prompt as administrator and execute the command: ipconfig /flushdns

  • Linux: Open a terminal and type: sudo resolvectl flush-caches

  • MacOS: Open Terminal and run the following commands:

sudo dscacheutil -flushcache; sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder
  1. DNS Client Service Restart:

The DNS Client Service on your computer is responsible for translating domain names to IP addresses. Restarting this service can sometimes resolve issues.

Instructions for Restarting the DNS Client Service:

  • Windows: Open Command Prompt as administrator and execute the following commands sequentially:
net stop dnscache
net start dnscache
  • Linux: DNS Client Service names vary (bind, named, rndc, etc.). To restart the service, use one of the following commands (adjust to your system's service name):
/etc/init.d/service_name reload


systemctl restart service_name


service service_name restart

Conclusion: Restoring Internet Harmony

How to Install PostgreSQL on Ubuntu 24.04 and Linux Mint

 PostgreSQL, a widely acclaimed open-source relational database management system (RDBMS), can be seamlessly installed on your Ubuntu 24.04 system. Renowned for its robust data management capabilities and exceptional scalability, PostgreSQL caters to a diverse range of applications, from simple websites to large-scale enterprise applications.

This comprehensive guide will walk you through the process of installing PostgreSQL on Ubuntu 24.04, encompassing system updates, package installation, and service configuration.

Step 1: System Update

Before embarking on the installation, it is crucial to update your system. This ensures you have the latest packages and dependencies installed. Execute the following command in your terminal:

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

Press Enter and allow the update process to complete. Depending on the number of pending updates, this may take a few minutes.

Step 2: Add PostgreSQL Repository

The official PostgreSQL repository enables you to install the most recent PostgreSQL version. However, prior to adding it, you need to install the postgresql-common package. This package encompasses the PGDG (PostgreSQL Global Development Group) repository and utilities for managing PostgreSQL.

Run the following command to install the postgresql-common package:

$ sudo apt install postgresql-common

Once the installation is complete, add the PGDG repository to your system using the following command:

$ sudo /usr/share/postgresql-common/pgdg/

This command will add the necessary repository for your specific Ubuntu version.

Step 3: Install PostgreSQL

With the PostgreSQL repository added, refresh the package database again to ensure the latest package list is retrieved. Execute the following command:

$ sudo apt update

With the updated package database, you can proceed with PostgreSQL installation. Use the following command to install the latest PostgreSQL version:

$ sudo apt install postgresql

The installation process will commence and may take a few minutes depending on your internet speed.

Step 4: Start PostgreSQL Service

During the installation process, a Systemd service is created to manage PostgreSQL. To ensure this service is running, use the following command:

$ sudo systemctl status postgresql

This command will display the status of the PostgreSQL service. If the service is not running, you can start it and enable it to start automatically upon system boot. Execute the following commands sequentially:

$ sudo systemctl start postgresql
$ sudo systemctl enable postgresql

The first command will initiate the PostgreSQL service, while the second command will enable it to start automatically in the future.


You have successfully installed PostgreSQL on Ubuntu 24.04! PostgreSQL is now ready to use for creating databases and managing your data. The next step is to secure and configure PostgreSQL according to your specific requirements. Numerous resources are available online to assist you with this process.

Fedora 41 Installer Will Gets Modernized with Wayland

Fedora is making a major push towards a modernized installation experience. The upcoming Fedora 41 release will see its Anaconda installer switch from the X11 display server protocol to Wayland. This change promises increased efficiency, enhanced security, and better alignment with Fedora's commitment to innovation.

Why the Shift from X11?

The current X11 system used by Anaconda relies on outdated dependencies, adding unnecessary complexity to the installation process. Wayland offers a cleaner and more efficient approach. By eliminating these legacy dependencies, Wayland paves the way for a smoother installation experience.

Benefits of Wayland for Anaconda

  • Reduced Technical Burden: Wayland streamlines the installation process by eliminating the technical complexities and dependencies inherent to the X11 setup.

  • Improved Security: Anaconda will transition from TigerVNC, which relies on the Xorg server, to Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) via Gnome Remote Desktop. This change promotes a more secure and efficient remote installation experience.

  • Enhanced Keyboard Management: The current Wayland system lacks a unified API for keyboard management, leading to potential issues during installation. To address this, Fedora will implement systemd-localed DBus API across all Fedora variants, ensuring a consistent and reliable user experience.

A Smoother Installation Experience Awaits

The transition to Wayland promises significant improvements for Fedora users, both locally and remotely. The adoption of RDP enhances the security and efficiency of remote installations, while improved keyboard layout management minimizes installation anomalies related to system configurations.

While awaiting final approval from the Fedora Engineering Steering Committee (FESCo), the proposed shift to Wayland marks a significant step towards a modernized and user-centric installation experience in Fedora 41.

Secure Your Website with .htaccess: A Comprehensive Guide

 Website security is crucial in today's online world. For websites using the Apache web server, the .htaccess file offers a powerful tool for fine-grained access control. This guide equips you with the knowledge and techniques to effectively manage file access using .htaccess, ultimately enhancing your website's security and protecting sensitive data.


Before delving into .htaccess-based access control, ensure you have the following:

  • Operating System: Linux or Unix
  • Web Server: Apache
  • Basic Understanding: Familiarity with the concept of .htaccess files
  • Linux Commands: Awareness of the "#" symbol indicating commands requiring root privileges (use "sudo" when necessary). The "$" symbol denotes commands executable by regular users.

Leveraging .htaccess for Access Management

The .htaccess file resides within the directory whose access you wish to control. Apache reads this file and can override global settings. Let's explore various methods for regulating file access using .htaccess:

1. Utilizing the <Files> Directive

The <Files> directive is employed to apply rules to specific files. This is particularly useful when you want to restrict access to a few files without affecting the entire directory.

<Files "filename">

Replace "filename" with the actual name of the file you want to protect. Within the <Files> block, you can insert various commands, such as access control or authentication rules.

2. Blocking Access to Specific Files

This method enables you to bar access to particular files on your website, proving invaluable for safeguarding sensitive information.

<Files "confidential.txt">
  Order allow,deny
  Deny from all

This code denies access to the "confidential.txt" file for all users. The "Order allow,deny" directive specifies the processing order of "Allow" and "Deny" directives.

3. Restricting Access Based on IP Address

You can limit access to your website or specific files based on the visitor's IP address.

Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from

This configuration blocks all users except those originating from IP address You can add multiple IP addresses using additional "Allow from" lines.

4. Enforcing User Authentication

To shield certain files or directories, you can mandate user authentication (identity verification).

AuthType Basic
AuthName "Restricted Area"
AuthUserFile /path/to/.htpasswd
Require valid-user

This method necessitates the creation of an ".htpasswd" file containing usernames and passwords. The "AuthType Basic" directive defines the authentication type, and the "AuthUserFile" directive points to the password file.

To generate the ".htpasswd" file, use the following command in the terminal:

  1. Navigate to the directory where you want to create the ".htpasswd" file or specify the full path:
$ cd /path/to/directory
  1. Employ the "htpasswd" command to create the file and add users. If not installed, use a package manager (e.g., "# sudo apt-get install apache2-utils" on Debian-based systems).
$ htpasswd -c .htpasswd username

The "-c" flag is used to create the file. You will be prompted to enter and confirm a password for that user.

To add more users to an existing ".htpasswd" file, omit the "-c" flag:

$ htpasswd .htpasswd new_user

Now you can safeguard files or directories by placing the ".htaccess" file along with the above configuration in the appropriate directory.

5. Blocking Access Based on File Type

You can also deny access to specific file types, such as configuration files or scripts.

<FilesMatch "\.(htaccess|htpasswd|ini|phps|fla|psd|log|sh)$">
  Order allow,deny
  Deny from all

This configuration blocks access to all files with the specified extensions.

6. Allowing Access from Specific Referrers

You can restrict access based on the referrer URL, enabling access only if the request originates from a particular site.

SetEnvIf Referer "" allowed_referrer
Order Deny,Allow
Deny from all
Allow from env=allowed_referrer

This code only grants access if the referrer URL contains "".

Understanding and Managing Avahi-Daemon in Linux


For Linux users, managing network configurations can sometimes feel intricate. Today, we'll explore avahi-daemon, a service crucial for network discovery. This guide equips you with the knowledge to understand, manage, and even disable avahi-daemon if needed, regardless of your Linux experience level.

What is avahi-daemon?

On a local network, avahi-daemon functions like a service directory. It broadcasts information about devices and services, allowing your computer to connect to other devices like printers, smart TVs, and IoT gadgets effortlessly, eliminating the need for manual configuration.

Should you disable avahi-daemon?

The decision to disable avahi-daemon hinges on your specific needs. Here are some key considerations:

Network Security: Avahi-daemon continuously broadcasts IP addresses on your local network. While modern systems have additional security measures, some users might prefer to disable the service, especially on untrusted networks.

Resource Usage: Disabling avahi-daemon can conserve a small amount of system resources, particularly if you don't frequently use its features.

Office Policies: Some workplaces may have policies restricting automatic device discovery on their networks. Disabling avahi-daemon can help you comply with such policies.

Important Considerations:

  • Disabling avahi-daemon won't affect devices already connected to your network.
  • Other devices using avahi-daemon will continue sending discovery requests, and the service list may reappear when you enable avahi-daemon on your computer.

Disabling avahi-daemon (without Uninstalling)

If you only need avahi-daemon occasionally, you can disable it without removing it entirely. Here's how:

  1. Stop the avahi-daemon service:
sudo systemctl stop avahi-daemon
  1. Disable automatic startup:
sudo systemctl disable avahi-daemon
  1. Verify avahi-daemon is disabled:
sudo systemctl status avahi-daemon

If the service is disabled, the output will display "inactive" or "dead".

Optional: Enhanced Security

To completely prevent avahi-daemon from running, you can use the following command:

sudo systemctl mask avahi-daemon

Re-enabling avahi-daemon

To bring avahi-daemon back online, simply use these commands:

sudo systemctl unmask avahi-daemon
sudo systemctl enable avahi-daemon
sudo systemctl start avahi-daemon


Disabling avahi-daemon is a valid option, especially if network security is a priority or you want to conserve a bit of system resources. However, if you're on a trusted local network and value the ease of device discovery, keeping avahi-daemon enabled might be a better choice.

Have Questions?

Feel free to leave a comment below if you have any questions or want to discuss anything else related to avahi-daemon in Linux. Remember, knowledge empowers you to make informed decisions and optimize your Linux experience.

KDE Plasma Gets a Sharper, Smoother Update: KDE Frameworks 6.3 Released

A significant update has arrived to enhance your desktop experience. KDE Frameworks 6.3 brings a welcome refresh to visuals, performance, and usability, making your daily workflow on KDE Plasma and KDE applications even better.

Feast Your Eyes on Sharper Details

One of the most noticeable improvements in KDE Frameworks 6.3 is the visual overhaul. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) images, commonly used throughout the interface, now display with exceptional clarity, especially on screens with fractional scaling. Gone are the days of blurry icons and graphics – expect a crisp and visually pleasing experience.

The update extends its visual improvements to small in-window dialogs, breathing new life into their appearance with a modern refresh. Command bars also receive a makeover, sporting a sleeker and more contemporary look.

Icon Enhancements for a Unified Experience

KDE Frameworks 6.3 streamlines the iconography used across Plasma desktops and applications. Icons now utilize standard colors instead of adapting to specific themes, ensuring a consistent visual language throughout your environment.

This update also addresses responsiveness issues with checkboxes found in window and screen selection dialogs for sharing. Additionally, specific Breeze icons have been tweaked to ensure their colors integrate seamlessly with dark color schemes.

Performance Gains and Streamlined Workflows

KDE Frameworks 6.3 tackles common performance bottlenecks, addressing issues like slow loading times for the File Search page in System Settings. This improvement likely stems from optimizations made to the file indexing process.

The update also resolves a previous hiccup encountered when upgrading to Qt 6.7, specifically within the "Choose your installation options" window of the "Get [something] New" window. Furthermore, searching functionality within the Kickoff application launcher has been enhanced for a smoother user experience.

Beyond the Surface: Technical Enhancements

KDE Frameworks 6.3 boasts various technical improvements under the hood. These include:

  • The addition of symbolic icons acting as symlinks to existing monochrome icons.
  • Removal of the recently introduced process-working-symbolic icon.
  • Implementation of comprehensive symlink checking during resource creation for Breeze icons.
  • Improved support for Qt 6.7 across various components.

For a comprehensive breakdown of all changes included in this update, you can refer to the official release notes [here](link to release notes).

Upgrade Now and Experience the Difference!

KDE Plasma users are highly encouraged to update to the KDE Frameworks 6.3 packages as soon as they become available within the stable software repositories of your chosen GNU/Linux distribution.

With this update, KDE Plasma continues to refine and enhance the user experience. Look forward to the upcoming major release of KDE Plasma 6.1 later this month on June 18th, 2024, featuring exciting new features like explicit GPU synchronization support.

Proton Pass Launched for macOS and Linux

Proton Mail users, rejoice! Today, Proton has launched Proton Pass for macOS and Linux.
This comes as a response to strong community requests for a unified password management solution that can be accessed across all major operating systems.

The Proton Pass app is designed to make it easy for you to manage your passwords. With Proton Pass, you can enjoy a secure and synchronized password management experience across multiple devices, including Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, Android, and Chrome OS.

Introducing Proton Pass

For those unfamiliar, Proton Pass is a comprehensive open-source password manager service, similar to the well-known Bitwarden. Proton Pass is developed by Proton, a Swiss software company known for its emphasis on privacy and security.

The company may already be familiar to you thanks to its encrypted email service, Proton Mail. Proton Mail is known for its strong privacy credentials, protected by Swiss privacy laws, one of the strongest in the world.

Proton Pass for Linux Users

Good news especially for Linux users! This new Proton Pass app will be very beneficial. The app supports all major Debian and RedHat-based distributions, including widely used ones like Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS, and more.

One interesting upcoming feature for Linux users is the integration with PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module). This feature, which will be rolled out in a future update, allows users to unlock Proton Pass using various secure methods supported by their system, such as fingerprint recognition or standard Linux user account credentials.

In addition, Proton Pass has its own advantage with offline mode, available for users with paid plans (Pass Plus, around IDR 340,000 per year). This feature allows passwords and other sensitive information to be stored locally on the device, secured by the Argon2 password hashing algorithm, which is known for its strong defense against brute-force attacks.

Advanced Proton Pass Features

The Proton Pass ecosystem offers several cutting-edge features for managing your passwords:

  • Auto-save and Auto-fill: Save and fill in passwords automatically on apps and websites to save you time.
  • Strong Password Generator: Generate complex and unpredictable passwords and passphrases to improve the security of your accounts.
  • Cross-device Synchronization: Access your passwords from anywhere with secure synchronization across all connected devices.
  • Additional Features: Proton Pass also offers secure password sharing, a built-in 2FA authenticator, and support for passkeys.
  • Proactive Security: Proton Sentinel, an AI-powered security program, and Pass Monitor are used to provide proactive security warnings against potential threats.

Download Proton Pass Now!

The Proton Pass password manager is now available for immediate download. Linux users can choose between DEB or RPM installation files. For more information, you can visit Proton's official announcement [here](link to announcement).

Manage your passwords securely and easily using Proton Pass! Enjoy a unified password management experience across all your devices.

Friday, May 24, 2024

Easy Wins You're Missing in Basic Website Optimization

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) can feel overwhelming, but there are often simple improvements you might be neglecting. This blog post explores three "easy wins" that can significantly boost your website's ranking.

1. Leverage Alt Image Text

  • What it is: Alt image text is a brief description embedded behind an image. It originally served as an accessibility tool for visually impaired users.
  • Why it matters: Search engines crawl your website's code, including alt image text. Including relevant keywords here helps search engines understand your images and improves your ranking for those keywords.
  • How to do it: Briefly describe the image content and incorporate relevant keywords naturally. For example, if you're a Chicago plumber with an image of a plumber fixing a toilet, your alt text could be "Plumber fixing a toilet in Chicago."

2. Create More Specific Pages

  • The problem: Generic service pages group various services under one roof.
  • The solution: Break down your services into individual pages targeting specific keyword clusters.
  • The benefit:
    • Each page becomes more relevant to specific search terms.
    • You can target a wider range of keywords with dedicated pages.
    • It allows you to build backlinks to these more targeted pages.
  • Example: A plumber can have separate pages for toilet repair, sink repair, septic repair, etc., instead of a single "Plumbing Services" page.

3. Implement Internal Linking

  • What it is: Linking to relevant pages within your website.
  • The benefit:
    • Improves user experience by making navigation easier.
    • Signals to search engines the relationships between your pages and their content.
  • How to do it: Link to relevant pages within your website content. For instance, an e-commerce shoe store could link a blue shoe to its brown counterpart with text like "See this shoe in blue."

Bonus Tip: Optimize Once, Rank Long-Term

Once you've optimized a page for your target keywords, leave it alone! Resist the urge to constantly rework your optimization strategy. Focus on creating high-quality content and letting your optimized pages work their magic.